11 Proposals For A Better DCS

September 16, 2009

Incoming graduate chair Peter Marbach has been leading a series of “town hall” meetings to build support for a Department of Computer Science conference, organized by graduate students. The stated goals are a) to improve the quality of the graduate experience by promoting interaction between areas and b) to build the Department’s reputation in industry and academic circles by effectively communicating our successes.

I’m happy that Peter cares enough to try something big, and doubly happy that he is trying to listen to us and involve us in his work. But, while the goals are lofty, I don’t agree with the conference approach. I think that there are lightweight projects that would contribute more to interaction between areas, and I feel that hosting a conference is not an effective way to build a reputation for our work. I would also criticize the proposal for lacking specificity (especially budget, organizing team, schedule) and accountability (no simple success or failure metrics).

I hate to criticize an ambitious and well-meaning proposal without suggesting a replacement. Accordingly, I’ll list some specific proposals below, without taking credit for any of the ideas. Before I do, I’ll list a few of the community projects that already exist.

CSGSBS “big” events

The CSGSBS hosts large, general-interest events a few times a year, including an upcoming BBQ.

CSGSBS “little” events

The CSGSBS coordinates weekly events including cookie breaks, movie nights and pub nights. There are attended by a small percentage (~10%) of the grad student population, and most weeks attract the same crowd again and again.

Research-In-Action showcase

Annual conference hosted on campus with posters and demos from graduate students. A few industry and political guests attend. Typically heavily-weighted on demo-friendly DGP work.

Area talks

Most areas have weekly talks. Outsiders are welcome in theory, though an interested outsider would have to find the right mailing list and often the material is too advanced.

11 Proposals for a better DCS

1. Lightweight talks

1.a Area intro talk series

Each week, a different area gives the talk. At a casual, accessible level, the talk covers why the area is interesting, the most important fundamental closed and open problems in the area, key results, and how each student’s work in the area fits into the big picture. The speaker recommends a survey paper or introductory book for students interested in more. No posters, textual or mathematical slides or chalkboards allowed. Each proposed speaker is vetted by the organizer in advance to ensure a minimum public speaking ability.

1.b Monthly Mini-TED

Monthly casual 1.5 hour meeting in a lounge with coffee. Three speakers give TED-format talks on any beginner-accessible topic of intellectual interest not related to research. Given the variety of DCS member  interests, we might hear talks on sailing, design, typography, photography, quantum physics or hooping.

2. DCS Portfolio

2.a Technical reports database

For communication of early or small research, revive the technical reports database or provide a DCS-only externally-accessible site with ArXiv.org-like functionality.

2.b Publication portfolio

Provide an RSS feed with links to PDFs of all research published by members of the department.

2.c Entrepreneurial portfolio

Directory of links to companies founded by members of the DCS.

2.d Graduate success portfolio

Track the alumni network (undergrad and grad) and list the institutions they join after graduation.

2.e Blogroll

Directory and firehose of blogs written by DCS members. Michael Famelis has done good work in this area for software engineering. Extend it to the whole department. For bonus marks, provide a global WordPress installation on cs.toronto.edu for DCS member blogs.

2.f Software Portfolio

Directory of software written by members of the DCS. This can include side projects, not just research-related work. Subsection for links to software to which DCS members have contributed. For bonus marks, provide distributed version control hosting and virtual private servers for hosting web applications.

3. Activities

3.a Pick-up sports

Weekly pick-up soccer or ultimate games in the summer and fall.

4. Structural Changes

This is the controversial stuff.

4.a Common-space whiteboards

Move whiteboards out of private, locked areas into public spaces where they can foster discussion.

4.b Cooperative Education

This is the biggest proposal, with highest cost and greatest potential payoff.

For the undergraduate program, provide institutional support for four-month co-op terms after first and second years, and break the PEY into four consecutive four-month terms. For MSc students provide institutional support for corporate research internships between completion of class and start of full-time research. A common infrastructure would support both missions.

Why co-op?

Work terms create a feedback loop with in-class education. Real work motivates study and supports good study habits. Programming skills honed in the workplace support theoretical learning in the classroom or lab. Problems discovered in the workplace can motivate research directions.

Work terms create a feedback loop with companies. With more work terms, more companies see more students. Companies are eager to hire students who have worked for them before. Companies are willing to contribute resources to universities that are an important part of their HR pipeline.

Weakness of the PEY

I claim the following weaknesses in the PEY program:

  1. Students make long-term commitments on their first-ever round of interviews. They often have no professional experience, and thus are not yet qualified for advanced work. This restricts their placement to beginner work, but this commitment to beginner work lasts sixteen months instead of four.
  2. Some students just don’t fit with some companies. In other cases, companies abuse long-term students for menial tasks such as manual testing. Four-month terms salvage these cases, without restricting a student from returning to a particularly good employer.
  3. Students see only one corporate culture, team culture and set of engineering practices before graduation.
  4. Students only get one round of interview practice.

Each of these is addressed in the proposed model.

Addressing Common Objections to Co-op for the DCS

I have heard two common objections.

  1. Prohibitive cost: This program would be expensive to administer. Answer: Everyone wants something for nothing, but a program like this is an investment. Other universities successfully mitigate the costs of similar programs. We can do it too.
  2. Competition with Waterloo (and other schools): The implementation of such a program would position us as an alternative to Waterloo’s well-oiled machine, and would contradict our years of PEY marketing. Answer: We should neither hesitate to adopt a good idea just because someone else uses it, nor should we allow a desire for self-consistency to trump innovation.


A frank an open discussion of ideas might lead us to improvements in our graduate experience, provided we restrict ourselves to specific proposals with measurable outcomes.

Here’s where you come in

  1. Leave a comment in your real name, and rank the ideas you care about. “++” for “would actively support, defend and work for”, “+” is “support passively”, “-” is “oppose passively” and “–” is “would actively oppose, attack and work against.”  So if you hate co-op, dislike pick-up sports, but would fight to see whiteboards moved to hallways, write this: [3.a-, 4.a++, 4.b–].
  2. Go find someone else in the department, force them to read this through and make them think through their opinions on these issues.

Let’s send a message about how to make our department better.


Having an Awesome Time Doing Science

September 10, 2009

I noticed that an two-day old highlight on a paper looked richer than new highlights, even though the highlighter was the same.

The experiment: Highlight a block on a piece of paper. Cover half the block, leaving half exposed to the sunlight and evil fluorescent office lighting.

Controlling for: Effect of time on highlight colour.

Observation: Covered half is lighter than half exposed to light.

Conclusion: Lighting interacts with highlight colour.

Threat to validity: What if air flow is the real cause of highlight colour change?

Future research: Does it matter if the light is fluorescent or sunlight?

Intelligence from scratch

September 9, 2009

Sometimes I get bored at breakfast and start to derive the first principles of fields I know nothing about. I don’t feel bad about it—I could learn something new, but if I get something wrong or get stuck, no harm done. Today’s topic is intelligence.

What does it mean for a critter to be intelligent? I would start with, “an intelligent critter acts in ways that tend to cause outcomes it likes”.

I want to work on this definition a bit. First, I want to separate out that “likes” bit. I think knowing what “likes” means is a hard and worthy problem, but I’m not interested in it today. So I’ll say instead, “an intelligent critter acts in ways that tend to cause predicted outcomes.” If the critter can predict the outcomes of its actions, then it could choose actions with outcomes it liked.

Now, our critters need to know what’s going on in the world. We all make decisions based on a constant input stream of information from the world. Sights, sounds, smells and tastes and are just the beginning—we can also feel whether our arms are above our head, and whether that leftover chinese food is sitting properly, and whether that bad knee tells us a storm is coming. If we’re general with these “internal” senses, we might find it useful later to think about our “likes” as a part of that input stream. We might even go so far as to talk about remembering as if it was turning on an internal input stream that we control.

These input streams change all the time and they’re full of rich experience. If we wanted to build a robot critter, it would need to process megabytes and megabytes of data every instant. I’m happy to leave this problem for someone else, and treat our critter’s input as a big list of bits [0,1,0,0… ( millions more )…] that gets updated many times per second. Maybe the first bunch of bits say what color the world is in the top-left corner of your left eye, and the last bunch talk about whether you’re getting a massage behind your right shoulder-blade. It doesn’t really matter.

Real quick now, we apply the same principle to the critter’s output and treat is as a similar big vector of bits. Maybe turning on the first 100 bits means “raise your hand straight up.”

So we’ve got these big vectors of bits, and they change over time. Our little critter finds patterns in the input and predicts how actions on the output bits will change the input patterns. Then it chooses the actions that give it new inputs that it likes.

Let’s say our critter learns that some output bit always affects the same input bits in the next time step. That’s close to learning that a bunch of input bits are related to each other. So I’m not going to worry about finding patterns within one input vector. Instead I want to focus on finding patterns in the inputs as time changes. So, I’ll construct an idealized problem. Every time step, the critter gets to choose a one or zero as its output, and it gets as input a one or a zero. The critter is also allowed to remember its past inputs and outputs, because we’ve now broken the system of imagining memory retrieval as just another input.

What happens if the critter’s actions have no effect on its inputs? Well, the critter would feel very frustrated and have a low sense of self-efficacy. It might still be able to amuse itself by detecting a pattern in its input, though. We could call this problem “pattern recognition.”

What happens if the critter’s input has no pattern? First, that implies that the critter would be frustrated as above. An input with no pattern would be a world in which every input bit was a coin toss. No critter could do better than 50% for very long. This teaches us that it matters “how much” pattern there is in the input. Just to make something up for now, we’ll call that quantity Q and come back to it later.

With these cases in mind, let’s write down more precisely the problem of intelligence:

Given input [{0,1}, {0,1}, …, {0,1}] and output [{0,1}, {0,1}, …, {0,1}], n = |input| == |output|, give [input(n+1 | output(n) = 0), input(n+1 | output(n) = 1)]. That is, given a history of n input bits and n output bits, provide a prediction for input bit n+1 for both possibilities of output bit. (That is, the prediction has two bits.)

In the pattern recognition problem, the two bits of the prediction are always equal, because the output bit has no effect.

Over time, we can measure how well our critter does. Each turn, the critter chooses an output, and then we get to find out if its input prediction given this output was right. (It’s too bad, but we only ever get to test the possibilities the critter chooses.) If the critter always gets the right predictions, we would call it omniscient. If the critter’s predictions are completely random and unintelligent, it would get 50% right. (If it did worse than 50%, say getting 40% right, it could just flip its predictions to get 60% right.) So we can put an objective measure our critter’s perceived intelligence, which is how often its predictions are right, and the maximum limit of this intelligence depends on Q, “how much pattern” there is.

That was too much pseudo-math, so let’s take a walk in the park and look at some ants before talking about what “how much pattern” means.*

An ant can seem to behave intelligently. It leads other ants to food, it carries dead ants away from the ant hill, and fights off mean bugs like spiders. Of course, ants aren’t really intelligent. We find this out when we take an ant away from its environment and it can’t adapt.

The ant isn’t really learning patterns in its environment to act on them. The ant detects and acts on shallow indicators of patterns that its DNA already knows. Evolution executed a learning algorithm, partially evaluating it on the “pattern” of the ant’s environment. It was an engineering tradeoff, sacrificing adaptability to get a simplified design.

From the ant we learn that our critter can have some built-in knowledge, and it behaves just like built-in knowledge in other theories of communication.

Let’s return to discussing “how much pattern.” Kolmogorov teaches us that we can measure the information content of a string by the length of the smallest program that generates that string. There might be other measures we want to use, but I’m satisfied that there is at least one measure that gives us something to work with.

The critter’s input is its environment’s output. In our simplified world, we’ll say that the the universe is a program that feeds the critter its bits. The critter, wishing to learn the patterns in its input, needs to figure out the universe’s program.

For the sake of the argument, we’ll limit the universe’s program to be finite. If the universe’s program grows infinitely, the critter can never win, and that’s no fun.

Suddenly it makes sense to think of the (infinite) set of all possible finite programs. (Actually, the set of all possible programs that input and output one bit per time-step.) We’ll call it PROGRAMS, because that’s appropriately big and bold. The universe is a finite program, so it’s an element of PROGRAMS. The critter’s learning algorithm is a program, so it’s an element of PROGRAMS. Finally, the critter’s learning algorithm has the unenviable task of searching PROGRAMS for the universe’s program.

Let’s give every program in PROGRAMS a number. I don’t know how to do this, but I’m happy to pretend that I can for now. If you’re feeling really generous, we’ll eliminate programs that don’t terminate with an output each turn, because they’re no fun. Then one possibility for the critter’s learning algorithm looks something like:

program_num = 0;
/* Find a simple model of the universe 
   that's consistent with our memory */
    program_num = program_num + 1;
/* Generate predictions of what the 
   universe will do next */
/* If I output 0, what will the universe do? */
prediction[0] = PROGRAMS[program_num](output_so_far + 0)
/* If I output 1, what will the universe do? */
prediction[1] = PROGRAMS[program_num](output_so_far + 1)
/* Emotions and feelings go here */
return better_for_me_of(prediction[0], prediction[1])

I hope you get the idea.

This critter is actually very greedy and short-sighted. Another critter might simulate the universe for a few turns ahead before deciding what outcome it likes best. A very clever critter might become curious, and use carefully chosen outputs to strategically eliminate possibilities.

There’s lots of interesting things we can think about next. For example, what happens when the universe is a program that deliberately tries to fool the critter’s program? Exactly much better would a critter do if, each turn, we informed it what would have happened if it had chosen the other output? What is the Q of a neuron? What is the Q of a strand of DNA of some length?

We can also play a fun game to try and develop a critter program that doesn’t require us to enumerate PROGRAMS. I think this would be a fun competition. Let’s see what we can learn right away:

At time 0, the critter knows nothing about the universe. Its choice of output is arbitrary. Call it a.

At time 1, the universe has provided input i, which is either a or ~a. The universe’s program could be: Always output i, or always echo the critter’s output, or something else. I think we can prove, though, that the critter’s optimal strategy is to predict and output i on the next turn, just in case the universe is one of the really simple programs.

After that, things get a little more complicated, and it’s lunch time now.

* This is how far I got before I decided it was time to get dressed and go to school. At school I spoke with Zak, who pointed me at Algorithmic Information Theory, which is a new-ish branch of mathematics and computer science that studies these things.

How much of total software cost goes to maintenance?

September 8, 2009

I thought I had a simple question: How much of total software cost goes to maintenance? I want a number that is recent, backed by evidence, and generally citation-worthy.

It turns out it’s hard to find. Software engineering course notes online tend not to cite their sources. Recent estimates tend to come from magazine articles citing Gartner or Forrester. A 2000 IEEE-published article was cited as “90%,” but digging into the paper I find:

According to an informal industry poll,85 to 90 percent of IS budgets goes to legacy system operation and maintenance.

If you know where I should look, please get in touch.

Cite this page

September 3, 2009

Get BibTex-formatted citations for web pages in one click.

WordPress won’t let me embed JavaScript links in a page, so:

  1. Go here.
  2. Bookmark the link called “Cite this page”, e.g. by dragging it to your browser bookmarks bar.

Unescaped code (you might need to View Source on this page to get the whole thing):

javascript:(function(){var d = Date().toString().split(" "); alert("@misc{" + document.title.split(" ")[0] + ",\n    title={" + document.title + "},\n    url=\"\\url{" + window.location +"}\",\n    note=\"[Online; accessed " + d[2] + "-" + d[1] + "-" + d[3] + "]\",\n    author={" +(document.getElementsByName('author')[0] || {content:'TODO put in author'}).content + "}\n"  + "}")})()

Tested in Safari 4.


September 2, 2009

And I quote:

For these reasons, our general approach to DSL development consists of two major tasks:

1. Tailor the DSL engineering process to the project’s context.

2. Apply the tailored DSL engineering process to develop the DSL.

To paraphrase: “Our process, that we are publishing here in this peer-reviewed journal, is: Make up a process, then use it.”
Even though this is a cheap shot, I would also like to point out that this same article has typos. Like, they misspelled “Haskell” as “Haskel,”, and “built” as “build.”
I wonder if I am the only human being on the planet who is reading this thing.

Units is out

August 17, 2009

Units is a new library for making Python programs safer. It’s also kind of fun.

For more, check out http://pypi.python.org/pypi/units/.

Case Study Databases vs. Ethics and Participation

August 5, 2009

Robert Yin advocates the creation of a case study database alongside the publication of  case study. In my interpretation of this idea, the case study database includes the raw data collected, such as transcripts, interview recordings, and documents collected from archives.  The creation of an “analysis-free” data repository allows others to reanalyze the data to reach different conclusions or for new purposes. This potential for reanalysis in turn strengthens the case study.

For my study, that would mean publishing my interview recordings, my transcriptions of those recordings, and the statistics about software repositories that I collect.

Greg points out two issues with this that have caused me to reverse my plan.

  1. This open approach is rare enough that it might have trouble getting through the ethics board. The withdrawal protocols become awkward, for instance.
  2. This might discourage participation. People might not want to be interviewed if the interview recording will be made available.

I think I will try with a new policy:

  1. Raw data (interview recordings) will be kept private and secure immediately after recording. They will be destroyed after publication of an analysis.
  2. Objective data such as interview transcripts will be kept private and secure. They will be destroyed after publication of an analysis.
  3. A summary of the interviews and other derivative data will be publicly available. If a subject requests it, this summary will be anonymized and the subject will be asked to approve the anonymized version prior to publication. Subject withdrawal will result in destruction of the summary if it has not yet been published. If it has already been published then withdrawal is not possible.

Google Calendar Labs “Free or Busy” Should Be IM Integrated

August 2, 2009

Google Calendar Labs has introduced a new feature called “Free or Busy,” described as “See which of your friends are free or busy right now.”

You make a list of people who’s status you’d like to see, and a widget on the side displays their current calendar status based on their privacy and sharing settings.

It’s a neat idea, but in my opinion the calendar is the wrong place to view this information.  I use my calendar to see what I should be doing or to schedule things for later, not to check up on my friends. If I want to see what a friend is up to right now, I’ll check their instant messenger status, or maybe Facebook or Twitter. I already manage my friend lists in those applications.

Instant messengers are still the best tool for distributed presence information. This free/busy widget would make a great instant-messenger plugin.

Peer Evaluation Dysfunctions

July 30, 2009

Every business is a system, and the performance of individuals is largely the result of the way the system operates… the system causes 80% of the problems in a business, and the system is management’s responsibility.

Ranking people for merit raises pits individual employees against each other and strongly discourages collaboration.

There is no greater demotivator than a reward system that is perceived to be unfair. It doesn’t matter whether the system is fair or not. If there is a perception of unfairness, then those who think that they have been treated unfairly will rapidly lose their motivation.

When we optimize a part of a chain, we invariably suboptimize overall performance.

—Mary Poppendieck, The Best Software Writing I, 2005.

Business Process Design and Software Design

July 30, 2009

In fact, I think that more attention needs to be drawn to the parallels between business process design and software architecture. I think that modern businesses are so complex that you basically have to have the skills of a software architect to get them right.

—Joel Spolsky, The Best Software Writing I, 2005.

Game: Make statements that are true of software architecture and business design.

My turn: “Modularization promotes correctness and maintainability through coherency and information-hiding, but sacrifices cross-cutting performance optimizations. ”

Your turn:

Inheritance Is Over-Taught (and taught too early)

July 21, 2009

Software Carpentry is gnashing through object-oriented programming.

It seems like the de facto way of teaching object-oriented programming involves diving into inheritance and polymorphism. These tend to take up a large proportion of the time because inheritance and polymorphism are hard.

I think the amount of time spent on these concepts is disproportionate to the amount they are used and encourages the overuse of these tools.

Composition, delegation and other relationships can all be modeled using references to other objects. Inheritance, however, relies on modeling a domain using only specialization relationships.

I think very few real domains actually are modeled really nicely using inheritance hierarchies.  I can only think of a few examples: Actors in simulations such as games, data structure libraries, and graphical user interfaces.

Where there is no way to model a domain using specialization, you’re actually lucky. In some cases, there is more than one way to model a domain using specialization. For example, you might be tempted to specialize objects that have physical properties. Some of them have behaviours related to mass, some related to energetic activity. Do you impose a partial ordering on the dimensions? Which partial ordering? Do you teach mixins? Multiple inheritance? Or do you try to teach why you should discard inheritance in this case?

Thankfully for the real world, the kind of domain modeled by inheritance tends to be the kind of domain where a few experts write a library that everyone then uses. This further reduces the argument for teaching inheritance.

Nearly all other relationship types degenerate into composition, delegation and reference.

Of the holy triumvirate of object-oriented principles (Inheritance, Polymorphism and Encapsulation) I think Encapsulation deserves the centre stage and the bulk of the attention, but it doesn’t get it. I like to ask “What information does this class protect from others?” It’s a much more productive question than devising inheritance relationships, which can be viewed as the task of sorting out a partial ordering of dimensions of classification of objects i.e. complicated.

Inheritance should be viewed simply as just one method of code reuse, and a particularly hard-to-use one at that. As such it is appropriate for programmers learning about refactoring and advanced code quality practices (i.e. advanced programmers only). At this time programmers will have a much stronger foundation for understanding this concept. Proper design of inheritance hierarchies requires thinking cleanly about TWO external interfaces for a class: The typical object and the interface to subclasses.

To make matters worse, we’ve only been discussing traditional inheritance. Prototype inheritance is another paradigm entirely. Many smart people think prototype inheritance is a better system overall, but the world is stuck with these 1970s concepts.

So to sum up this rant:

  • Inheritance is hard to use right in the real world.
  • Compared to other object relationship types, inheritance isn’t used that much in the real world.
  • Inheritance is just one of many ways of reusing code.
  • Inheritance is taught too early to novice programmers.
  • Inheritance consumes too much of the object-oriented education curriculum.

In my view, instead of the status quo we should:

  • Teach objects only in the context of information-hiding. Treat classes as simple, standalone templates for objects.
  • Teach delegation as the primary method of code reuse.
  • Omit discussions of inheritance until as late as possible.

Theory product

July 9, 2009

For each item on the left what does the theory on the right predict about DSLs as a consequence?

Things I can’t do with my iPhone*

July 8, 2009

Things I can’t do with my iPhone*

*that I should be able to and can be implemented in software.**

** that I may simply not have learned how to do yet.

  • Download a picture from picasaweb
  • Sync over bluetooth or wifi. I could do this with my several-years-old motorola phone and Apple’s own iSync. Two steps forward, one step back.
  • Sync saved Safari passwords, Airport networks, or VPN settings from Keychain.
  • Manage iCal to-do lists
  • Record calls
  • Get the app store to remember my password

Fido + iPhone Fail.

July 7, 2009

A while back I compared the big smartphones available in Canada. I decided I wanted the iPhone 3GS. Then I compared Fido to Rogers for my needs and found a Fido plan that I liked. This seemed convenient because I’m already a Fido customer, which I thought would make things easier.

On June 19 I went to the biggest Fido store in Toronto to buy one, but they were out of stock. I called around and all the other Fido stores were also out of stock. I thought this was silly, because they had been advertising the phone heavily and this was the third iPhone—they should have anticipated the demand better.

The next day I called Fido to order one over the phone. I waited 25 minutes on hold before my phone went out of service and the call dropped.

The next day I called Fido to order one over the phone. The woman on the phone told me it would probably be shipped to me in the next week or so, but in the worst case it would arrive July 7th. She wanted to activate my new plan right away, but we agreed that it would be silly for me to pay for data and visual voicemail and other features until I had a phone to use them with. So, I would receive my new phone, call Fido, and activate my new plan to give Fido lots more money.

About two weeks later I called to check on the order. I was assured the July 7th deadline was still good.

Today is July 7th. I called to find out what had happened.

The gentleman on the phone told me the phones were out of stock and backordered, but there was a waiting list.

I told him that I had already been promised a July 7th delivery, and asked him why I didn’t have my phone.

He told me he would check to see if it had been shipped yet. It hadn’t. They had no shipping tracking number.

I asked him when I could expect a new phone.

He looked into my file and told me that as a matter of policy they could not give me a new phone at agreement price and that the back office had blocked my order.


I asked him to clarify since I didn’t understand.

He said that as a result of my phone plan change in November which included a system access fee I could not order a new phone.

What just happened?

I asked him what happened on June 21 when I ordered my phone and it was to be delivered July 7th at the latest.

He said the woman I spoke with had made a mistake.

I asked him why I had been allowed to order a phone then. I also suggested to him that it was strange that the back office would block my order due to a policy I had never heard of without notifying me.

He left to check with his supervisor. When he came back, he said that my plan change in November made me ineligible for a new phone, even though I didn’t get a new phone at that time.

(In November, I changed plans. I was already a Fido customer, but on an old plan. I switched to a new, better plan and paid a $35 activation fee. I’ve always used my own unlocked phone and I’ve never signed a long-term contract.)

I told him that this didn’t make sense, because if I wasn’t already a customer, I could walk into a Fido store, give them money for a new phone, and sign up for an agreement. I asked him how we could solve this problem.

He said he couldn’t do anything about the policy.

I asked who I could talk to who could solve this problem and clarify what the hell had happened here.

A few minutes later, I had a supervisor named Oliver on the line.

We talked through the situation. Oliver made some exceptions that I don’t fully understand to work around the Fido system. As of now, I’m on a different (worse) plan, but, if I can find an iPhone in a store, I’ll be able to buy it without the system throwing up some error. I’m also on a waiting list if the central Fido gets some new stock.

I called the biggest Fido store in Toronto. They are out of stock. I called around and all the other Fido stores were also out of stock. I thought this was silly, because they had been advertising the phone heavily and this was the third iPhone—they should have anticipated the demand better.